Overview of gtmars.com (GoToMars)

PRIVATE SPACE COMPANIES

This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer—or are planning to offer—equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human..Companies which manufacture complete satellites, payloads, buses as well as space segment hardware manufacturers.
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Space manufacturing



COMPANY NAME

PRODUCTS

MANUFACTURING CRAFT

STATUS

Shackleton Energy Company

Propellant, space infrastructure, propellant depot

Unknown

Proposed (2007)

Made In Space

3D printing in ISS, in-space antenna systems, fiber optics

Unknown

Operational (2018)

Deep Space Industries

Propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

MicroGravity Foundry

Development



Space mining

SPACE MINING

Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
Hard rock minerals could be mined from an asteroid or a spent comet. Precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum group metals could be transported back to Earth, whilst iron group metals and other common ones could be used for construction in space.
Difficulties include the high cost of spaceflight, unreliable identification of asteroids suitable for mining, and ore extraction challenges. Thus, terrestrial mining remains the only means of raw mineral acquisition used today. If space program funding, either public or private, dramatically increases, this situation may change as resources on Earth become increasingly scarce compared to demand and the full potentials of asteroid mining—and space exploration in general—are researched in greater detail.
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EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

Surface mining On some types of asteroids, material may be scraped off the surface using a scoop or auger, or for larger pieces, an "active grab. There is strong evidence that many asteroids consist of rubble piles, making this approach possible.


Shaft mining A mine can be dug into the asteroid, and the material extracted through the shaft. This requires precise knowledge to engineer accuracy of astro-location under the surface regolith and a transportation system to carry the desired ore to the processing facility.


Magnetic rakes Asteroids with a high metal content may be covered in loose grains that can be gathered by means of a magnet.


Heating For asteroids such as carbonaceous chondrites that contain hydrated minerals, water and other volatiles can be extracted simply by heating. A water extraction test in 2016 by Honeybee Robotics used asteroid regolith simulant developed by Deep Space Industries and the University of Central Florida to match the bulk mineralogy of a particular carbonaceous meteorite. Although the simulant was physically dry (i.e., it contained no water molecules adsorbed in the matrix of the rocky material), heating to about 510 °C released hydroxyl, which came out as substantial amounts of water vapor from the molecular structure of phyllosilicate clays and sulphur compounds. The vapor was condensed into liquid water filling the collection containers, demonstrating the feasibility of mining water from certain classes of physically dry asteroids. For volatile materials in extinct comets, heat can be used to melt and vaporize the matrix.

Extraction using the Mond process The nickel and iron of an iron rich asteroid could be extracted by the Mond process. This involves passing carbon monoxide over the asteroid at a temperature between 50 and 60 °C for nickel, higher for iron, and with high pressures and enclosed in materials that are resistant to the corrosive carbonyls. This forms the gases nickel tetracarbonyl and iron pentacarbonyl - then nickel and iron can be removed from the gas again at higher temperatures, perhaps in an attached printer, and platinum, gold etc. left as a residue.

Heating A 1980 NASA study entitled Advanced Automation for Space Missions proposed a complex automated factory on the Moon that would work over several years to build 80% of a copy of itself, the other 20% being imported from Earth since those more complex parts (like computer chips) would require a vastly larger supply chain to produce. Exponential growth of factories over many years could refine large amounts of lunar (or asteroidal) regolith. Since 1980 there has been major progress in miniaturization, nanotechnology, materials science, and additive manufacturing, so it may be possible to achieve 100% "closure" with a reasonably small mass of hardware, although these technology advancements are themselves enabled on Earth by expansion of the supply chain so it needs further study. A NASA study in 2012 proposed a "bootstrapping" approach to establish an in-space supply chain with 100% closure, suggesting it could be achieved in only two to four decades with low annual cost. A study in 2016 again claimed it is possible to complete in just a few decades because of ongoing advances in robotics, and it argued it will provide benefits back to the Earth including economic growth, environmental protection, and provision of clean energy while also providing humanity protection against existential threats


Companies and organizations Several organizations have said they are working on asteroid mining, including:
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COMPANY NAME

BODY TO BE MINED

MINING CRAFT

MINING STATUS

Deep Space Industries

Near-Earth asteroids

Prospector-1, Harvestor 1

Development

ispace

Moon

Hakuto-R

Development

Moon Express

Moon

MX-1, MX-2, MX-5, MX-9

Development

Planetary Resources

Near-Earth asteroids

Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300

Development

Shackleton Energy Company

Moon

TBD

Proposed (2007)

Space Development Nexus

Near-Earth asteroids

SDNx BR-1, BR-2

Proposed (2016)

Lunar Resources

Moon


Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers

COMPANY NAME

PRODUCTS

Altius Space Machines

Rendezvous and capture technology for uncooperative satellites; magnetoshell aerocapture and aerobraking technology for CubeSats; lightweight robotic manipulators

Andrews Space

Reusable space vehicles; HTHL spacecraft; magnetorquers

Axelspace

CubeSats

Craig Technologies

Small satellite deployment services (up to 110 kg); microgravity payload integration

EADS Astrium Satellites

Spacecraft and ground segment elements

EADS Astrium Space Transportation

Launchers and orbital infrastructure

Innovative Solutions In Space

CubeSat manufacture and operation

Made in Space

3D printers for use in microgravity

Mynaric

Laser communication for satellites and aircraft

NanoRacks

In-space services; small satellite launch services; CubeSat launch services; microgravity payload integration

SpaceDev

Small spacecraft; propulsion products and services; space components, mechanisms and structures

SpaceQuest, Ltd.

Spacecraft and spacecraft components


Spaceliner companies

COMPANY NAME

CONTRACTS

CRAFT UTILISED

STATUS

NOTES

Benson Space Company

SpaceDev

Dream Chaser

Defunct

MirCorp

none

Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir

Defunct

Mir deorbited

Space Adventures

none

Soyuz and the ISS

Active

7 tourists sent

RocketShip Tours

XCOR

Lynx rocketplane

Defunct

Virgin Galactic

Scaled Composites

Spaceship Two, White Knight 2

Development

7 Spaceship Two glide flights successfully completed

TOP 10 MAJOR SATELLITE BUILDERS

There are 10 major companies that build large, commercial, Geosynchronous satellite platforms:

ROCKET ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

COMPANY

LOCATION

TOTAL SATELLITES LAUNCHED

DESCRIPTION

1.Airbus Defence and Space

Europe(France/Germany/Spain/United Kingdom)

Formerly Astrium
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.

2.OHB SE

Europe(Germany/Italy/Luxembourg/ Sweden/France/Belgium)

3.Boeing Defense,Space&Security

United States

Boeing Defense, Space&Security(BDS) is a division of The Boeing Company based in Arlington, Virginia.
It is responsible for defense and aerospace products and services. It was formerly known as Boeing Integrated Defense Systems(IDS).

4.INVAP

Argentina

6 - SAC-A
SAC-B
SAC-C
SAC-D
ARSAT-1
ARSAT-2

INVAP is developing new satellites ARSAT-3 SAOCOM SABIA-Mar

5.JSC Information Satellite Systems

Russia

1160

Formerly NPO PM

6.Lockheed Martin

United States

7.Northrop Grumman

United States

Formerly Orbital ATK
Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems is an American aerospace manufacturer and defense industry company that operates as the aviation division of parent company Northrop Grumman.
It was formed as Orbital ATK Inc.

8.Raytheon

United States

One of worlds largest space sensor providers.

9.Space Systems/Loral

United States

240

Formerly Space Systems/Loral,LLC
It is a wholly owned manufacturing subsidiary of Maxar Technologies.

10.Thales Alenia Space

Europe(France/Italy/United Kingdom/ Spain/Belgium/Germany/Poland)

Thales Alenia Space is a Franco-Italian aerospace manufacturer formed after the Thales Group bought the participation of Alcatel in the two joint-ventures between Alcatel and Leonardo, Alcatel Alenia Space and Telespazio.
The company is Europe's largest satellite manufacturer, and was responsible for the manufacturing of the ESA built modules of the International Space Station.

In addition to those above, the following companies have successfully built and launched (smaller) satellite platforms:

COMPANY

LOCATION

TOTAL SATELLITES LAUNCHED

DESCRIPTION

1.AeroAstro, Inc

United States

Closed

2.Amsat

International-United States,Canada, Germany,Italy,Japan,Brazil,India,United Kingdom,Argentina

Consortium of amateur satellite constructors

3.hruva Space

India

Nano Satellites (>8 to <35 kg)

4.Berlin Space Technologies

Germany

Small Satellites (30-150kg) & Components

5.British Aerospace

United Kingdom

Purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, to form BAE Systems

6.CBERS

Brazil & China

5

7.Compagnia Generale per lo Spazio

Italy

part of OHB SE

8.Clyde Space

United Kingdom

CubeSats and Nanosatellites (<10 kg)

9.Fairchild Space and Electronics Division

United States

sold to Matra Marconi Space, then sold to Orbital Sciences Corporation

10.Fokker Space & Systems

Netherlands

Then Dutch Space, now part of EADS Astrium Satellites

11.GAUSS Srl

Italy

9

CubeSats and Small Satellites (<50 kg)

12.General Electric

United States

Then merged into Martin Marietta, now part of Lockheed Martin

13.Hawker Siddeley Dynamics

United Kingdom

now part of EADS Astrium Satellites

14.Hughes Aircraft

United States

15.IHI Corporation

Japan

16.Millennium Space Systems

United States

2

17.SpaceX

United States

62

Starlink constellation (Space Internet)

18.NanoAvionics

Lithuania

1

CubeSats and Small Sats

19.OneWeb

United Kingdom

6

OneWeb satellite constellation

20.QinetiQ Space N.V.

Belgium

3

then Verhaert Space

21.SPAR Aerospace

Canada

8 - Alouette 1 (1)
Anik-E (1)
RADARSAT 1 and 2 (2)
Olympus-1 (1)
MSAT 1, 2 and SA (3)

Bought by MacDonald Dettwiler

22.SNC Space Systems

United States

Formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation

23.SpaceQuest, Ltd

United States

16

Microsatellites & Components

24.Xovian

India

Nanosat and services

25.TRANSPACE Technologies

India

On-Board Satellite Systems Fabrication, Testing and Reliability Analysis

26.TRW

United States

nearly 200

Now part of Northrop Grumman Space Technology

27.Yuzhnoye Design Bureau

Ukraine

Now part of Northrop Grumman Space Technology

28.TsSKB-Progress

Russia

manufacturer of Bion-M, Foton-M, Resurs-P and Persona

29.Swales Aerospace

United States

Bought by Alliant Techsystems, now Orbital ATK

30.Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd

United Kingdom

Now part of Airbus Defence & Space

LAUNCH VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS AND PROVIDERS (Third Party services)

COMPANY

LOCATION

TOTAL SATELLITES LAUNCHED

DESCRIPTION

1.Arianespace

Europe(France/Germany/Italy/ Belgium/ Switzerland/Sweden/Spain/Netherlands/Norway/Denmark)

Ariane(Rocket Family)

2.COSMOS International

Russia/Germany

Commercialises the Kosmos-3M launcher

3.Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering

Netherlands

Suborbital student-built sounding rockets

4.Eurockot Launch Services

Europe(Germany/France/United Kingdom/ Spain/Netherlands/Russia)

Owned by EADS Astrium

5.International Launch Services

United States,Russia

97/100

6.ISRO

India

58/71

PSLV, GSLV, GSLV III

7.ISC Kosmotras

Russia/Ukraine/Kazakhstan

8.Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau

Russia

Commercialises the Volna and Shtil' launchers

9.Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Japan

62

10.NPO Mashinostroyeniya

Russia

Commercialises the Strela launcher

11.Orbital ATK

United States

Manufacturer of Antares, Minotaur and Pegasus

12.Rocket Lab

New Zealand/United States

Manufacturer of Electron launch vehicle

13.Sea Launch

United States/Russia/Ukraine/Norway

28/31

Provider of Sea Launch and Land Launch service

14.SpaceX

United States

54/58

Falcon 1,Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy

15.Starsem

Europe(Germany/France/United Kingdom/ Spain/Netherlands/Italy/Belgium/Switzerland/Sweden/Norway/Denmark/ and Russia)

Commercialises the Soyuz launcher

16.The Spaceship Company

United States

Reusable spaceship launched from the White Knight Aircraft for space tourism and zero-g experimentation

17.TsSKB-Progress

Russia

Manufacturer of Soyuz launch vehicle

18.United Start Launch

United States

Commercialises the Start-1 launcher

19.Virgin Galactic

United States

Space Tourism Using 'The Spaceship Company spacecraft

20.Virgin Orbit

United States

Manufacturer of LauncherOne air-launched launch vehicle

COMMERCIAL WINGS OF NATIONAL SPACE AGENCIES

COMPANY

LOCATION

TOTAL SATELLITES LAUNCHED

DESCRIPTION

1.Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL)

Bengaluru (HQ)

Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL), Bengaluru is a wholly owned Government of India Company under the administrative control of the Department of Space.
Antrix Corporation Limited was incorporated as a private limited company owned by Government of India in September 1992 as a Marketing arm of ISRO for promotion and commercial exploitation of space products, technical consultancy services and transfer of technologies developed by Indian Space Research Organisation.

2.China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)

Haidian District, Beijing, China

The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is the main contractor for the Chinese space program.
It is state-owned and has a number of subordinate entities which design, develop and manufacture a range of spacecraft, launch vehicles, strategic and tactical missile systems, and ground equipment.
It was officially established in July 1999 as part of a Chinese government reform drive, having previously been one part of the former China Aerospace Corporation. Various incarnations of the program date back to 1956.

3. TAIWAN AEROSPACE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION/Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC)

Taichung,Greater Taiwan

AIDC was privatized through a public stock offering on August 25th, 2014 with the Taiwanese Government retaining a 39% stake.
Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation is an aerospace company of Taiwan based in Taichung, Taiwan. It is best known for developing the AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo fighter and for being a partner in the Mitsubishi MRJ.

LANDER, ROVER & PROBE

COMPANY

LOCATION

TOTAL PROBES LAUNCHED

DESCRIPTION

1.Brown Engineering Company

Huntsville, AL United States

Rover for Apollo lunar program

2.Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

India

Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Mars Orbiter Mission(MOM-1), MOM-2 (2022 Est)

3. Deep Space Industries

Mountain View, CA United States

4.NASA JPL(Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

Pasadena,USA

For ATHLETE lunar missions, Mars Pathfinder, Opportunity and Spirit rover

5.Planetary Resources

edmond, WA United States

Arkyd-100 for asteroid searching

6.Lavochkin

Russia

Rovers for Lunokhod 1

7.China National Space Administration (CNSA)

China

For Chang'e 3 program in 2013

SPACECRAFT COMPONENTS MANUFACTURERS

COMPANY

LOCATION

PRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

1.Antenna Development Corporation

Las Cruces,NM,United States

Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, and Test of satellite antennas.
Supplier of microstrip patch antennas, helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas, antenna couplers, circumferential array antennas, and power splitters.

2.Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH

Berlin, Germany

Attitude control components (reaction wheels, gyro system, GPS receiver, magnetometer).
Supplier of space systems and ISS payload NightPod.

3.Dynetics

Madison, AL United States

Used on Sundancer and Ares I

4.American Technology Consortium

Oxnard, CA United States

Mars Pathfinder Airbag Retraction Actuator Planetary Gearboxes, Mars Pathfinder Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Stardust Scan Mirror Mechanism, Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robot Arm Brush Motors, MVACS Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Genesis Array Deployment Mechanism, Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper (SRTM) Mast Deployment Actuators, SRTM Harmonic Drive Actuators, A2100 & A2100M Bus Antenna Pointing Mechanism Linear Actuators, Orbview 3 & 4 Antenna Gimbals, Sirius Satellite Radio Antenna Gimbal Motors, Champollion Cryogenic Comet Drill Actuator, TES Filter Wheel Actuator, Mars Odyssey Mission PanCam Mast Deployment Actuator, Mars Odyssey PanCam Azimuth Twist Capsule and Actuator Assembly, Mars Odyssey PanCam Elevation Actuator, Mars Odyssey Drill Mechanism Gearboxes, and Mars Phoenix Camera Pointing Mechanisms.

Asset sale to competitor in 2000, Original corporation renamed to Rocketstar Robotics Inc in 2006.

5.Tethers Unlimited, Inc

Seattle, WA United States

De-Orbiting Devices, Deployable Solar Arrays, Propulsion Systems, Radio Communications, and Robotics

6.RUAG Space

Switzerland

Structures, Fairings, Mechanisms, Opto-Electronics

7.TRANSPACE Technologies

Bangalore, KA India

On-Board Satellite Sub-Systems Fabrication, Testing, Reliability Analysis and PCB Design

Approved Vendor for ISRO Satellite Center, India

8.GAUSS Srl

Rome, Italy

Complete Space Platforms, Nanosatellites Structures and Deployers, OBDH, EPS, Radio Communications, Solar Panels and Groundstation systems

9.Andrews Space

Seattle, WA United States

10. Jena-Optronik

Jena, Germany

Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) sensors: star sensors, sun sensors, rendezvous- and docking sensors; Optical space instruments and components: multi-spectral imager (e.g. JSS 56 for RapidEye satellite constellation), efficient radiometer (e.g. METimage), electronic as well as opto-mechanical subsystems and components for operational Earth observation (e.g. for Copernicus Sentinel missions).

11.Pumpkin, Inc

CubeSat Kits[

San Francisco, CA United States

12.Mynaric

Munich Germany

Laser communication equipment for airborne and spaceborne communication networks, so called constellations.

13.Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace

Kongsberg,Norway

Kongsberg Adaptive Rotational Mechanism Assembly [KARMA] in configuration as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM), used on Rosetta (spacecraft), Mars Express, Venus Express, Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3 and BepiColombo MTM.
Drive electronics for Sentinel 1 and BepiColombo MTM.
Booster attachment struts, including separation function, for Ariane 5.

14.Production Corporation Polyot

Russia

15.Rocketstar Robotics Inc[

marillo, CA United States

Space Interferometry Mission Optical Shutter Mechanisms

16.SNC Space Systems

United States

Formerly SpaceDev, owned by Sierra Nevada Corporation

17.Astro Aerospace[

Carpinteria, CA United States

Deployable mechanisms, spacecraft structures, AstroMesh deployable reflector, deployable booms, large and small aperature mesh reflector antennas, STEM (Storable Tubular Extendable Member), hinge mechanisms.

A special business unit of Northrop Grumman

18.Clyde Space

United Kingdom

Power System Electronics, Batteries, Solar Panels, Attitude Control Systems

Acquired by ÅAC Microtec

19. RadioBro Corporation

Huntsville, Alabama United States

Small Spacecraft Communications, Flight Readiness Testing, Training Services[

20.Solar MEMS Technologies

Spain

Sun Sensors for Satellites

PROPULSION MANUFACTURERS

COMPANY

LOCATION

ENGINE

ENGINE TYPE

DESCRIPTION

1.Aerojet Rocketdyne

Rancho Cordova, California United States

Numerous

liquid rocket engine, Solid rocket engine, Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion thruster.

2.American Rocket Company

United States

Hybrid rocket

Intellectual property acquired by SpaceDev

3.Busek

Natick, Massachusetts United States

BHT-200, BHT-1500, BHT-20k, BET-1, BmP-220, BIT-1, BIT-3, BIT-7, uPPT-3

Hall-effect thruster, Gridded Ion, Electrospray, micro Pulsed Plasma, Green Monopropellant, Electrothermal, Hollow Cathodes, Field Emission Cathode

TacSat-2, FalconSat-5, FalconSat-6, ST-7/LISA Pathfinder. Licensed technology for BPT-4000 aboard AEHF 1, AEHF 2, AEHF 3. Propulsion options ranging from CubeSats to GEO Communications Satellites to Asteroid Redirect Mission Spacecraft.

4.CU Aerospace

Champaign, IL United States

PUC,CHIPS,PPT-11

MCD/Resistojet/PPT

5.Exotrail

Massy, France

ExoMG

Hall-effect thruster

6.Frontier Astronautics

Valencia, CA United States

VIPER & ASP

VIPER: Liquid rocket engine
ASP: High test peroxide

Reusable rocket engine & Reusable monopropellant rocket engine

7.Ad Astra Rocket Company

Webster, TX United States

VASIMR

magnetoplasma

MAY be used for future Mars missions

8.Enpulsion GmbH

Wiener Neustadt, Austria

Propulsion Systems for Cubesats, Small Sats, and Medium/Large Satellites

Field Emission Electric Propulsion

Enpulsion is commercializing a technology that has been developed for ESA science missions for more than 10 years.

9.Reaction Engines Ltd

Oxfordshire,United Kingdom

SABRE

Combined cycle precooled jet engine and closed cycle rocket engine

Planned to be used in Skylon

10.SpaceDev

Poway, CA, United States

Hybrid rocket

Used on SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo

11.SpaceX

Hawthorne,California, United States

Merlin | Raptor | Draco | Kestrel

Liquid Rocket Engine

Used on Falcon Rockets

12.TGV Rockets

Washington,DC,United States

PF-X / Electrocycle

Liquid Rocket Engine

Used on customer vehicles

13.ArianeGroup

Vernon, France

Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B

Liquid Rocket Engine

Used on Ariane rockets

14.NPO Energomash

Russia

Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B

Liquid Rocket Engine

Used on Ariane rockets

15.NPO Energomash

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

Used on R-7, Molniya, Soyuz, Energia, Zenit, Atlas III, Atlas V, Angara, Antares

16.KBKhA

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on Soyuz, Proton, Energia

17.KBKhM

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on Vostok, Voskhod, Zenit, Soyuz, Progress, Salyut 1, Salyut 4, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir Core Module, Zvezda, GSLV Mk I

18.NIIMash

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on Almaz, Buran, Briz-M

19.TsNIIMash

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on STEX

20.Kuznetsov Design Bureau

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on N1, Soyuz-2-1v, Antares

21.OKB Fakel

Russia

Hall-Effect Thruster

used on SMART-1, LS-1300

22.Proton-PM

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

used on Proton, Angara

23.Keldysh Research Center

Russia

Liquid Rocket Engine

24.Voronezh Mechanical Plant

Russia

used on Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, Soyuz, Proton, Energia, Luna

25.Yuzhnoye Design Office / Yuzhmash

Ukraine

RD-8
RD-843
RD-855
RD-856

1.Oxygen+kerosene and N204+UDMH 2.liquid Rocket engine
3.Solid rocket engine
4.Thrusters
5.Hall-effect thruster
6.Ammonia jet propulsion system
7.Gas-jet propulsion system

Used on Vega, Zenit, Cyclone and lot of soviet missiles Okean-O, Sich-1, EgyptSat 1 and lot of soviet spacecrafts

LAUNCH VEHICLE MAKERS

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